Digital Marketing Terms

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z


Adsense- Google runs this ad serving programs that allows website owners to gain revenue by displaying ads on their websites. Google provides text, image and video advertisements that appear on participating websites. These ads appear based on the keywords and content present on the website.

Adsense has become one of the most popular methods to gain revenue from a website through advertising space. Adsense ads are less intrusive than traditional ads. Since the ads are picked based on the content of the website, the ads are also more relevant than traditional banners.

Web masters are paid when an Internet user clicks on an ad on their web page. Depending on the ad, the revenue may be a few cents up to a dollar per click. The ads used in Adsense are gathered from participants in Google’s Adwords advertising program.

Since web masters are paid regardless of whether anything is purchased at the advertiser’s site, it may be tempting for the web master to click on all of the ads on his or her site. However, Google watches for this type of activity, which is called “click fraud.” If a web page is showing signs of click fraud, a web master may lose their access to Google Adsense permanently.

Web masters can discreetly encourage clicks on their website by using three main techniques:

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    They can use a wide range of traffic generating techniques to get more visits to their website.
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    They can use a wide range of traffic generating techniques to get more visits to their website.
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    They can add valuable content to their site, to attract Adsense ads that pay higher per click.

They use copy on their website to encourage visitors to click on the ads. Some of the most common phrases are “Sponsored Links” and “Advertisements.” It is against Google Adsense policy to post statements like “Please click on my Adsense links.”

Adwords- Google’s advertising product and main source of revenue. Adwords offers pay-per-click advertising for text and banner ads. When advertisers use Adwords to promote their product or service, their ads appear on any related website that is using Adsense.

Adwords advertisements are short, and consist of a title and two content lines. Advertisers pick keywords that relate to that their ad, and then bid on these keywords. They pay each time someone clicks on their ad. The advertisement will take the clicker to the merchant’s website.

Keywords cost more when they are more popular. If a lot of people are bidding on the word “internet marketing” the cost per click will be much higher. Depending on the keyword, a click may cost anywhere from $0.10 to several dollars.

Mastering the use of Google Adwords and effective pay-per-click campaign management is one of the keys to success in online business.

Affiliate- When you become an affiliate with a specific company, or affiliate program, you are awarded for every visitor, subscriber and/or customer that you provide to the company. Affiliate marketing is one of the most popular forms of business on the web, and an effective way to promote businesses and products.

The basic set up, from the affiliate’s side, goes as follows: You (the Affiliate) find a company or product that you would like to promote. You join the “affiliate program” of the company and receive the tools by which you can send customers to the company’s website. This most often includes a special URL link, which will let the company know that the customer has come from you. You will get credit when people visit the companies website. Details can vary, but in most cases you receive a percentage of the revenue from sales that customers make from following your link.

Applet- A small program or application, which is usually written in Java, and runs on a Web browser. An applet powers some of the fancier features of Internet pages, such as animation. They download quickly and are used both online and offline.

Attachment-A file of group of files that is included with an e-mail message. You can attach files through most e-mail programs. To attach a file to an e-mail, simply click the “attach file” button (or similar button). This will open a menu that will allow you to browse through your computer to find the file or image that you’d like to attach. Never open any attachment you receive from someone your do not know: it may contain a harmful virus.

Autoresponders- Autoresponders are automatic e-mail response programs. They have become one of the most essential tools for Internet marketers, affiliate marketers and other who do a large amount of business on the web. The autoresponder program will send pre-entered e-mail messages instantly to people who request information from a website, newsletter or online merchant. One of the most common uses for autoresponders is to create a learning course to inform and educate potential customers about the benefits of a business or product. Autoresponders also allow Internet business people to effortlessly follow up with their clients from time to time. 

Avatar- An icon that represents you on message boards, chat rooms, IM programs, 3-D chat rooms and virtual worlds. Your avatar can be whatever you want it to be. There are graphic elements, animals, cartoons and pictures used as avatars on the Internet.


B2B, B2C- Acronyms for business-to-business or business-to-consumer activities. Many websites focus on business-to-business relationships and services (like wholesale suppliers), while others focus on providing services and products to consumers.

Back Button- One of the buttons on the top of a Web browser. It allows you to “go back” to the previous web page that you were browsing.

Banner ad- An online ad on a web page that links to another website or landing page. Banner ads are one of the first methods of advertising on the web. They have different costs depending on how much traffic and page views the website gets, and can cost up to $150,000 per month. Banner ads get their name because they are placed at the top or bottom of a web page, however, they can also be placed on the sides of the website content.

Banner exchange- A group of web sites that display each other’s ad banners in exchange for credits. The more impressions you display, the more credits you receive. The credits are converted into ad spaces for you to display your ad banner on participating websites. This can be an effective way to drive traffic to a website.

Blog- Blog is a shortened term for “weblog.” Either term refers to a website where entries are made similar to a journal or diary. The entries are presented in reverse chronological order, with the newest entry on top. Although blogs were originally used like a personal journal on everyday events, they have evolved into a multipurpose tool. There are blogs on every topic imaginable, from food to politics to celebrity gossip. Generally, blogs combine the text entries with images, links to other blogs and other related media.

A blog entry consists of five basic components:

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    The Title: The main headline of the blog post.
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    The Body: The main content of the blog post, which can consist of text and/or photos and video.
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    Permalink: This is the URL of the individual post.
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    Post Date: The date and time the post was published to the blog website.

A blog entry can also include comments from readers, categories (commonly called tags) that label the blog entry by subject, and trackback links, which are links to other sites that refer to the blog entry.

Bloggers- Bloggers is the blanket term for anyone that uses a blog to post information on topics that are of interest to them. Becoming a blogger is actually simpler than it might seem. As blogging has grown in popularity, many website offer platforms to quickly and easily create a blog.

Some of the most popular blogging software platforms are Blogger, Livejournal, Typepad, WordPress and Xanga. These websites will host your blog, generally for free, and provide you with the tools to create blog posts without having to know a lot about software.

BMP or bmp- A Microsoft Windows image format. It stands for bitmap. The images you see when Windows starts up and closes, and the wallpaper that cover the desktop, are all in BMP format.

Brick and mortar- The name for traditional retail businesses with actual buildings. Used in contrast to dot com businesses, which exist mainly online.

Bookmark- With so many interesting web pages out there, it’s hard to keep track of sites that you want to revisit again and again. Using bookmarks can help you keep tabs on the sites you liked and want to look at in the future. Your Internet Browser will have a tab at the top that says “Bookmarks” or “Favorites.” When you are on a website that you want to bookmark, you can select “Bookmark this page” (or a similar phrase) and your web browser will save the URL information for that site.

Your bookmarks will be stored in the browser in your “Bookmarks” or “Favorites” menu. Normally the bookmarks are stored in chronological order, with the oldest bookmarks at the top of your list. Most browsers offer the option to organize the bookmarks in folders. This makes your bookmarks easily accessible and you can group them together based on topics.

Branding- In marketing, and especially Internet marketing, branding is important to establishing the company identity. Branding is the result of an accumulation of experiences that consumers have with a particular company or product.

A brand creates associations and expectations among the products made by a company. The brand is a symbol for all of the information that is connection a company, a product or a service. Branding can include a logo, font selection, color schemes and symbols that work together to create an impression of the values, ideas and personality of the company.

Branding has significant importance in Internet marketing where the competition is huge. Having a noteworthy and unique branding strategy can help companies stand out in the vast online marketplace.

Individuals can also develop a form of personal branding, which can help establish credibility with their online customers and target a specific niche of people.


Cache- This is the action of storing Web files for later reuse so that they can be easily accessed at a later date. When you are browsing the Internet, your Internet browser will store a HTML page code, graphics and multimedia elements in the cache. This way when you return to that particular Web page, the information doesn’t have to be downloaded all over again.

The cache is actually a form of high-speed memory. Your computer sets it aside to store frequently accessed data. The data can then be accessed directly from the hard drive, instead of the Internet server. Accessing the hard drive is a much faster process than accessing a server, so essentially the cache increases the time it takes to view frequently visited pages.

Keep in mind that the cache can build up over time and actually slow down your hard drive. It is advisable to clean out your cache from time to time.

Chat rooms- These are one of the most popular ways to make connections with real people over the Internet. A chat room is basically an interactive message board that allows live, online conversation for two or more users. When you use a chat room, whatever you type appears in the main screen next to your login name or handle. Other users will appear in the main screen with their messages next to their handles.

Most chat rooms have a specific topic that everyone will discuss. However, other chat rooms are simply for meeting other people. There are some chat rooms that are designed as intricate 3-D environments, where you select an avatar that will represent you in the virtual meeting place.

Copywriting- The process of writing words to promote a business, person, opinion or idea. Copywriting can include plain text messages and a variety of other online media. The main purpose of copywriting is to persuade the reader to act somehow, whether that is buying a product, signing up for an e-course or clicking on a link.

Copywriting can also refer to the SEO methods that are used to achieve higher rankings in search engines. This type of copywriting is often referred to as content writing. Copywriting for website placement involves the strategic repetition of keywords phrases within articles.

Crawler- A crawler (also called a spider) is a program that searches the Internet and locates new public resources. These resources can include web documents and other types of files. Crawlers report their finds to an Internet database (called indexing). Each search engine has its own crawler program that crawls the Internet for new material to list on the search engine. Spider technology is necessary because the amount of information being added to the Internet on a daily basis is more than any human team can index.

D ( is referred to as a social book marking site. It is for storing and sharing web bookmarks with other users. The service is completely free and relatively new. first came online in late 2003.

Everything that is posted on is viewable by the public, although you can choose to make specific bookmarks private. Bookmarks are publicly viewable for a purpose. Many people use to publish links to their personal or business blogs. You can use the interface to keep links to your favorite articles, blogs, music etc. You can also share your favorites with anyone who has an e-mail address. also has a search function that allows you to explore what others are book marking, and find other websites that are related to your interests.

Domain Name-This is the address or URL of a particular website. For example is the domain name for the Google search engine. The domain name is the text name that covers up the numeric IP address of a computer that is hooked up to the Internet.

Domain names make the World Wide Web more user friendly. Instead of having to remember a string of numbers, we can remember the name of the website.

Registering a domain name for an online venture can cost as little as $8. Website domain names are registered to prevent people from using the same name for their website. There are several different companies that allow you to register a website and many of these companies offer hosting packages as well.

Download- The act of transferring file or files from one computer to another using the Internet. There are a few basic methods of downloading from the Internet. You can download directly from a website or an ftp site. You can also download from e-mail attachments (although it is highly recommended that you do not download e-mail attachments from unknown sources).

Downloading is one of the most highly used functions of the Internet. Many programs, files and documents are available for downloading from the Internet.

Double Opt-In- A technique used in opt-in or permission based marketing. It ensures that a potential customer actually wants to receive the marketing materials and is a way to prevent unwanted spam. The basic process is as follows:

A potential customer requests information from a website and is asked to confirm that they want the information to come to their e-mail address.

The potential customer then receives a confirmation e-mail in their inbox. This e-mail requires them to click on a verification link to receive further information.

Once the potential customer receives verification, they will receive the future messages from the mailing list, e-course or autoresponder series. 


E-business- An e-business is defined as any business that is drawing a majority of its income from selling their products or service in an online format.

There are many advantages to running an e-business, as opposed to a traditional business. The start up costs for doing business online are relatively low compared to opening up a store. All you need is an internet connection and a website. There can also be added costs for advertising and setting up a merchant account so you can accept payments.

However, overall, the costs are much lower than opening a store in a building. You can do business directly from your home, and with certain suppliers, you don’t even have to have inventory. Another advantage to doing business online, as opposed to locally, is that you can sell to the entire world instead of just your local community.

E-business can also be used to refer to any business practices that are handled electronically (such as supply chain management, order tracking and processing, and payroll).

E-book- This is a book that can be downloaded and read on a computer. Most e-books are saved in Adobe Acrobat and require Adobe Acrobat reader (a free program) to be accessed. E-books (sometimes spelled ebooks) are quickly becoming the newest way to receive information online. There are many free e-books available on the web, and there are also e-books available for purchase. When you purchase an e-book, you can download it directly to your computer.

E-mail (electronic mail)- E-mail is mail that is electronically sent to your computer. E-mail (sometimes spelled email) is delivered instantly. This feature is one of the main reasons people seek to gain Internet access. E-mail is completely free to use, and allows you to communicate worldwide.

To use e-mail, you need a computer, an online connection, an e-mail account and an e-mail program. The e-mail account can be obtained through your ISP, or from one of several free e-mail services online. These free e-mail services include: 

Gmail ( - provided by Google

Yahoo Mail ( - provided by Yahoo

Hotmail ( - a service of MSN

Since an e-mail address is the main form of communication online, it is recommended that you choose a memorable e-mail name. Too many numbers and misspellings will make it difficult for others to contact you. Many people use more than one e-mail address to separate their business and personal e-mails.

E-mail Marketing Campaigns- This is a form of direct marketing that uses electronic mail to communicate commercial and fundraising messages. These focus on gathering e-mail addresses of web visitors. These addresses are added to a potential customer mailing list, and the list receives updates on the site, free e-courses, and special offers. Autoresponders are an essential part of e-mail marketing campaigns.

Emoticons- One of the biggest problems with communicating over the Internet is the inability to show emotion. Emoticons have filled that gap by providing ways to use text to describe feelings. The name “emoticon” comes from a combination “emotion” and “icon.” Simply put, they are symbols that are used in chat rooms, message boards, e-mail messages and IM messages to display emotions.

Emoticons are normally used at the end of a sentence in order to convey the feeling associated with that sentence. For example, when a person makes a statement in jest, the “winking” emoticon can be used afterward to imply sarcasm.

Originally, emoticons only made sense if you turned your head to the side. Today many IM programs, chat rooms and message boards employ animated “smilies” to imply emotion. These smilies are normally unique to the platform they are being used on.

Here are several of the most common emoticons:

: )  -- Smile

: O – Surprise

: ( - Frown

: P – Tongue stuck out

; ) – Winking

> : ( - Mad

Examples of graphical smilies can be seen at


FAQ- A list of questions and answers that are related to a Web site, newsgroup, software or any kind of product or service. Most users can find answers to their questions on the FAQ list, so before contacting customer service or tech support you should check this list.

Flaming- The act of deliberately posting messages to a message board or e-mail list that are hostile and insulting. The messages are called “flames.” A flame may look like a normal message, but it will have a degrading tone and intent. Some flamers are attempting to assert their authority or establish superiority on a subject in a condescending manner. Most often flames are insulting messages that are posted by someone who has strong feelings on the subject matter. 

Folksonomy- An open ended labeling system (such as the use of “tags”) that helps Internet users to categorize content online. Folksonomy is used to categorize web pages, online photographs and web links. It is changing the way that people search for information on the Internet. 

The key difference between folksonomy and other labeling systems are that users develop the labels. The labels are freely chosen and completely subjective. As a result, the labels that are created are more “organic” to the group of users.

Forums- An Internet forum is a place on the World Wide Web for holding discussions. Normally, forum members will either discuss one specific topic or have a common thread among all of the members. For example, there are discussion groups for Work At Home mothers where they will discuss not only business related topics, but parenting, budgeting and time-management as well.

Forums allow individuals to really connect with one another across distance using the Internet. Unlike e-mail, and messages posted to the forum will be viewable by all forum members. In fact, information posted on forums is part of the public knowledge for years to come.

Forums are supported by many different software platforms, and are very user friendly. For a lot of Internet newcomers, forums are their first entry into using the Internet. Some of the other common terms for forums are web forums, discussion forums, bulletin boards, message boards, discussion boards and discussion groups.

Forward- Redirecting mail from your inbox to another e-mail user. If you have messages from one person that you would like to share with another person, you can forward the messages to the latter. Normally, this is achieved by simply clicking the “forward” button on your e-mail program and entering the second party’s e-mail address. This is also a helpful way of distributing important information.

Certain messages, however, encourage the recipient to forward them on to someone else. These are online versions of chain letters. Most “forwards” as they are called involve both an inspirational message and a promise for good luck if you forward the message on. Chain email is annoying to most recipients and is discouraged as part of good netiquette.

Free Reprint Articles (FRA)- Articles that are free to publish on web pages. Normally, these articles are distributed by article directories and are categorized by topic. FRAs are used to add content to web pages that will help attract search engine traffic.

For example, if you have a website on which you sell antique dollhouses, you would search for FRAs that deal with your site. Using FRAs is the quickest way to get quality content for a website.

Article directories list available articles in specific categories and normally have a searchable database. Some of the most popular article directory sites are:

FTP- The standard method for downloading and uploading files on the Internet. The term is an anagram for “file transfer protocol.” There are many FTP public archive sites online that you can access with your e-mail address. Understanding FTP is necessary if you want to create your own website.


Ghost site- The name for a web site that is no longer maintained by a Webmaster, but remains online. Some ghost sites continue to be useful because the content may not be outdated. A ghost site will normally include a statement acknowledging that the site will no longer be updated.

GIF or .gif- A compressed graphics file that is used to display images online. Normally, images on web pages are in GIF format, rather than JPG format, so they will load faster.

Graphic- A picture or still image that is generated on a computer. Graphics give websites, forums and e-mails dimension and interest.


Handle- A synonym for “login name” or “user name.”

Hardware- All of the electronic components that make up a computer. These include monitors, the hard drive, computers, CD-ROM drives, speakers, keyboards, stylus pens, mice, external hard drives and floppy drives.

Home-based business-  Any business where the primary office is located in the owner’s home. Although many home-based business owners work at home exclusively, there are many service based businesses where the owners spend most of their time outside the office, such as interior decorators, truckers and software trainers.

More people are choosing to run home-based businesses than ever before. With the advent of the online business, owning a business from home is becoming easier.

Operating a home-based business has several advantages. First of all, home-based business owners enjoy a level of personal freedom that is impossible in the corporate world. Home-based business owners can work a flexible schedule and save on time and money by avoiding commuting. There are also certain tax advantages to running a home-based business.

HTML- HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a language that was designed for the creation of web pages. While many people directly use HTML to create web pages, there are many intermediary programs that allow you to create websites without using HTML. However, it is helpful to understand how HTML works. There are three main types of mark-ups that are used, structural, presentational and hypertext. Structural markups allow you to set up headings, paragraphs and lists for your web page. Presentational markups can create bold, italic, and underlined text and also change the size of the text. Hypertext markups create a link from one page to another. Keep in mind that when information is in HTML it is “sandwiched” between two tags. For example, if you wanted to make the word “cat” bold, you would write:


The opening tag lets the program know “I want this to appear bold” and the closing tag will establish that you are done with bold.

Some other useful html tags include:




<center> to center the text or image </center>

<br>break in paragraph<br>

< i >italicize </i>



Hosting- The business of providing the equipment and services that is required to display websites. Hosting also involves maintaining files and providing fast Internet connections. If you run a website or do business on the Web, you need to find a reliable host. Hosting packages are available for very reasonable rates. Do research based on customer service and quality of technical service before choosing a hosting company based only on price.


IM- Instant Messaging is the act of instantly communicating over the Internet, using on of many Instant Messaging platforms. IM is one of the most popular methods to have private one-on-one conversation online. Unlike message boards, the messages on an IM program are private. IM technology also differs from e-mail in that the private conversation can take place in real time.

Instant messaging makes it easy to confirm details on contracts and other business matters. It is also a popular social tool, and the driving force behind the development of IM features has been mainly social, and not business oriented. There are many popular IM programs that can be used. Most, if not all of them, are available for free.

IM programs are downloaded to your computer, installed and then accessible at any time. Some of the most popular programs are:


AOL Instant Messenger (often called AIM)

Google chat, which available when you use a free Gmail e-mail address.

Yahoo Instant Messenger, which is usable by anyone with a free Yahoo e-mail address.

MSN messenger which links to the free Hotmail e-mail program provided by MSN.

Once you choose an IM program, you can speak with other people who use that same IM program. A third party free program named Trillian ( allows you to combine your contacts from any of the major IM programs, and use one simple IM interface.

Internet-The Internet is also referred to as just the Net, and is a worldwide system of interconnected computer networks. The computers are connected through copper wires, fiber optic cables or wireless connections. The Internet consists of millions of smaller networks that have been established by businesses, academic institutions and government networks. All together these networks carry information and services (like electronic mail, online chat and Web pages).

It is a common misconception that the Internet and World Wide Web are interchangeable terms. Actually the Internet refers to the physical or wireless connection between computers. The World Wide Web refers to the connected documents that exist on the Internet.

Although the Internet seems to be a relatively new phenomenon to the general public, the basics of what would become the Internet were actually established in 1969. More developments were made through the next two decades and the network was publicized in the early 1990s.

You connect to the Internet using an Internet Service Provider (or ISP). ISPs provide the connection to the rest of the World Wide Web and are normally monthly fee-based services. An example of an ISP is AOL or Yahoo DSL. Common methods of accessing the Internet from home are dial-up, broadband (connection over fiber optic or copper wires), satellite and Wi-Fi. These connection methods have various speeds and download times. Some are not available in all areas, so make sure to check with companies in your area before making a switch of connection type.

Internet marketing- This is also known as online marketing and web marketing. This form of marketing combines traditional marketing principles with the unique interactive elements of the World Wide Web. The purpose of Internet marketing is to promote products and services online.

IRT- Anagram for “In Real Time.” For example, chat rooms allow individuals to converse IRT.

ISP (Internet Service Provider)- A company that provides users with access to the Internet. Before you can connect to the Internet, you must first establish an account with an ISP. For a monthly fee the Internet Service provider gives you the software package, a user name, a password and an access phone number. Often times there is a free e-mail address included.

Once the ISP software is installed on your computer, and you register your service, you will be able to connect to the Internet and surf the World Wide Web. The speed of the Internet connection will depend on the bandwidth of the hardware you use to connect to the Internet.

ISPs have a wide range of prices and packages to choose from. There are ISPs that service large companies and establish large networks. There are also ISPs that cater to the public and establish individual access to the Internet.

When selecting an ISP, be sure to choose a provider that has a local access number so you can avoid paying long-distance charges when you connect. Other bonuses to look for are accounts that offer unlimited access, as well as free space for your own Web site.


JPG- Pronounced “jay peg”, this is one of the most common types of image formats that is used on the Internet. The format is either abbreviated as JPG or jpeg from Joint Photographic Experts Group. JPG technology was designed for compressing either full-color or gray-scale images of natural, real-world scenes. It works well on photographs, naturalistic artwork and similar material. When a standard image is compressed into JPG format, some of the decompressed image isn’t quite as sharp as it was before.

JV (Joint Venture)- Although joint venture is not exclusively an Internet term, the concept is an important part of any Internet marketing program. At its most basic level, a joint venture is a business move that is made by two or more entities to the mutual advantage of each. In the Internet world, this process can take one of many forms.

-Person A can offer Person B’s product on Person A’s mailing list. This is done when Person B has a great product, but few means of distribution. Person A will normally receive a percentage of the profit from sales made on the mailing list.

-Person A and Person B collaborate to create a brand new product or service. Both parties will promote the product on their mailing lists. This normally happens with information products, and can include 3 or more collaborators.

-Person A can interview Person B for an article, short report or audio program. Person B will get promotion for their current product, and Person A gets exclusive information that they can use to sell Person B’s product as an affiliate.

Joint Ventures are a driving force in the Internet marketing world, and savvy marketers find ways to make JV deals part of their long-term success strategies.


Keyword- A term that you type into a search engine to begin an online search. Keywords are also used in HTML to help search engines identify and index a Web site.

Keyword research-The search for keywords related to your Web site, in order to analyze which ones yield the highest return on investment for PPC and other types of advertising. Wordtracker ( and other keyword research tools help advertisers pick appropriate keywords for their campaigns.


Left click- Clicking on the button on the left side of the mouse. The left button is the primary selector tool on the standard mouse. When you use the left button to click on an icon on the computer screen, the program will open.

Link- This is reference to another document, resource or web page. Links are “clickable,” meaning that placing your cursor over the link and clicking will take you directly to the information that you are looking for. Links are a short form the official term “hyperlink.”

Links can also be used as a form of “internet” currency. Google ranks websites based on the number of related links that they have to and from their website. Many online businesses seek links to add to their websites so they can increase their ranking on Google and other search engines.

Log in- This term is sometimes spelled “login” and is interchangeable with the term “log on.” To “log in” to the Internet is the act of connecting to the World Wide Web. The term is also used to refer to the act of entering your user name and password into a website, e-mail program, instant messenger system, message board or chat room. When you are “logged on” to the Internet, website or program, you have access to all of the features available. Many sites that require privacy ask you to register with the site and then login with a name and password.

Login Name- Also called a “user name” or “user ID,” this is the name you use to access certain programs, websites, software or networks. A login name is the “nickname” for a user on the Internet. Normally, the user can pick their own login name. Quite often, a login name for e-mail programs is the first part of the e-mail address. Many people choose to use the same or similar login names for all of their Internet activity.


Mailbot- An e-mail server that automatically responds to requests for information. Also called an autoresponder.

Message Boards- An alternate term for forums. Please see “forum” entry.

Meta Tags- Meta tags are part of the HTML code that makes up what you see on a website. When webmasters create web pages, meta tags are used to provide structured information about a web page. These tags are placed in between the <head> and </head> sections of an HTML document.

However, the meta tags are not visible to the person looking at the website through an Internet browser. Meta tags are part of the hidden code of the web page that is recognizable to the web browser only. Meta tags are used by search engines (like Google or Yahoo) to generate and display a list of search results based on what a user enters into the search engine. Tags do the same thing, however Meta Tags refer to the overall keywords for the entire website, while tags refer to the specific web page.

Meta tags have been used as a key component of a technique called search engine optimization. Since websites are listed based on their meta tags, it is commercially advantageous to pick the right meta tags to drive traffic to a website.

MSN- This stands for MicroSoft Network. MSN offers a wide variety of programs and features to Internet users. The main website,, is a site that many people use as their homepage. MSN offers news and information on the main site, as well as search engine functions. MSN also offers MSN Instant Messaging, which is a downloadable program that allows real time text messaging between members. MSN’s e-mail service “Hotmail” is another popular service. Most MSN services are free of charge.

Mod- An abbreviation for “moderator.” A moderator is a volunteer who screens messages for a moderated mailing list, newsgroup or a forum. A moderator’s main job is to make sure that conversation on the group flows freely, and within the site or list guidelines. They watch for inappropriate language, “flaming” and off topic messages. Depending on the site or list, moderators may have the ability to change the look and style of the main page.

Mouse- A device that connects to your computer and is used to move the pointer or cursor on your screen. A standard mouse is equipped with two or more control buttons. A mouse is used to highlight text, open menu items and launch programs.


Navigate- The act of moving around the Web by clicking on the links that take you from one Web page to another. As you navigate, you move from one server to another without realizing it.

Newbie- Any person who is new to the online world, or a specific forum or chat room. Some people use newbie as a derogatory term, although it does not necessarily have that meaning. At some point, everyone online was a newbie.

Netizen- A combination of the words “citizen” and “Internet.” The term refers to someone who spends a significant amount of time or is an experienced user of the Internet.

Niche and Niche marketing- A niche is a focused and target-able portion of the market. A business that focuses on a niche market is attending to the need for a product or service that is not being addressed by the mainstream market. The niche market narrowly defines a group of potential customers.

One of the advantages of dealing in niche markets is the ability to be one of the only suppliers meeting that need. The key is to find an untapped niche market whose customers are accessible.

Niche marketing is the process of finding and serving one or more small yet profitable markets. Niche marketers design custom-made products or services for the markets that meet specific needs. 

Netiquette- This is the code of conduct and unofficial rules that govern all forms of online communication. The word is derived from a combination of “net” and “etiquette.” Understanding the basics of netiquette will go a long way toward getting along with other Internet users and getting help when you need it.

Although there are slightly different rules depending on the newsgroup, forum or mailing list, there are some basic guidelines that are followed everywhere.

Some of the important do’s and don’ts of Netiquette include:

  • Think before you post to a group. If what you are going to post will not make a positive contribution to the newsgroup, forum or e-mail list…don’t post it! Use private e-mail for more personal conversations, off the list.
  • Re-read and edit your posts and e-mail carefully before sending them. Make sure to check your spelling, grammar and capitalization.
  • Don’t send spam or other non-necessary messages.
  • Use proper capitalization. Using all caps is considered YELLING online, and all lower case is too casual.


Online, offline- The state of being connected to the internet through an ISP, OSP or network is called “online.” “Offline” is the state of being disconnected from the Internet.

Online can be used as an adjective and describes a variety of activities that users can do on the Internet. For example, it is used in the phrases online shopping, online gaming, online search, online store etc.

Opt-in & Permission-based marketing- This is a popular sales approach that is used online to make sure that the customers being contacted are actually interested in the products being sold. This developed out of the distrust and annoyance of spam marketing. The terms “opt-in” and “permission based” are interchangeable.

In permission-based marketing practices, a prospective customer will give his or her consent to receive marketing information (normally through e-mail). Opt-in marketing aims to tailor the messages and communication between the marketer and customer to the customer’s needs. This is often done using the principles of niche marketing.

As opposed to banner advertising, in which the normal flow of Internet use is interrupted by advertisement, permission-based marketing is a subtle, yet effective, form of advertising. Normally, a potential customer will be offered the chance to receive more information via e-mail, or a chance to register for a free site.


Page impressions- Also known as page requests or page views. Page impressions refer to the number of times that a web page is requested from a server. This is the preferred method for counting traffic.

Password-  A combination of letters and numbers that is needed to login to a computer system, program, website or internet feature (such as e-mail). It is advisable to keep your password secret, and use different passwords for different programs. This keeps unauthorized users from breaking into your personal information and files. Changing passwords from time to time is also recommended.

When you are choosing a password, make sure that is it “cryptic.” This means that it has an ambiguous meaning and cannot be linked to any of your personal information. Using your middle name, street address, children’s names, etc, is not advised. It is also better to use a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters and include numbers in your password.

PDF-This file format is for documents that are viewed and created by Adobe Acrobat Reader, Adobe Capture, Adobe Distiller, Adobe Exchange and Adobe Acrobat Amber plug in. PDF technology has created a standard format for transferring documents on the Internet.

One of the benefits of using PDFs is that it is easily accessible, even by the most new of Internet users. It makes it simple to quickly transfer business documents and other files to large groups of people.

PDF has revolutionized the printing industry in that it is standard for publishers to offer a hard copy version and a PDF version. E-books are commonly delivered in PDF format, which makes them instantly downloadable.

Plugins- A plugin (sometimes spelled plug-in) is a software program that can extend the capabilities of your Internet browser. It can give your browser the ability to play audio files or movie files. Normally, if a website requires a plugin to be viewed properly, there will be a link from the website to a site when you can download the plugin. Some of the most common plugins are Shockwave, Flash, Acrobat, Real Player and Quicktime. Once you download a plugin, the small program will be on your computer to be used by other websites.

PM- Acronym for “private message.” PMs can be received in online chat, IM programs, e-mails, blogs and forums.

Podcast- This term can be used in several different ways, but it normally refers to the publishing of audio or video files to the internet. The files are referred to as “podcasts” or “shows” and are similar to talk radio programs or public access television shows. People who create podcasts are called “podcasters.”

Podcasters can focus their show on any topic, and generally post new shows daily or weekly. The term is a combination of “ipod” and “broadcasting,” although it is not necessary to own an ipod to listen to podcasts. There are many podcast networks that feature a variety of shows.

Post- This is a noun used to describe a message entered onto a message board, shared e-mail list or newsgroup. The message is called a “post” and the act of sharing the message is called “posting.”

PPC advertising- Pay Per Click Advertising, or PPC, is an online advertising payment model in which the payment is based on the number of “clicks” that are generated. PPC can also be called “cost per click.”

As an advertiser, here’s how it works. You bid for certain keywords that are related to the content of your site (the information or products that you offer). When a user searches with these keywords in a search engine, they are shown your listing, as well as others that are bidding on the same keywords. If the user clicks on your listing, you pay the amount that you have bid. The highest bidding advertisers will appear first in the search results, and the subsequent listings are ranked by the amount of their bid.

Bids for keywords can be anything from a few cents to a few dollars per click. Part of managing a PPC advertising campaign well is determining how much needs to be spent per click in order to get a good balance between visibility (your listing showing on the first page of the search results) and the advertising budget.

Starting in 1998, PPC Advertising became a larger part of the online advertising world. Overture ( and Google’s Adwords ( are two of the most popular PPC systems. In these systems, ads appear near the search results under the heading “sponsored links.” PPC is advocated as an ideal short-term solution for driving traffic to a website, since the results can be seen within 24 hours of launching the campaign.


Quarantine- When a virus scanning software finds a virus on your computer, it will quarantine (or isolate) the virus files. Quarantining will prevent the virus from spreading but you will still need to delete the file.

Query– A question or request to find a particular file, Web Site or record. Queries are typed into search engines or databases.


Reprint Rights- Permission to print a work that has been previously published. In the online world, buying e-books with reprint rights is one way to profit from information products.

Right click- Clicking the button on the right side of your mouse. On PCs, this opens a drop-down menu that gives you access to shortcut options. On Mac computer, this same drop-down menu can be accessed by clicking and holding down the mouse.

RSS- RSS is the format used for syndicating web content. The acronym stands for Really Simple Syndications, Real-time Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary. RSS is a technology that allows websites to distribute new content to Internet users, without the user having the revisit the website. In essence, it is equivalent to a daily or weekly newspaper.

RSS Feeds– RSS Feeds are the syndicated information that are sent through RSS technology from websites to Internet users. Users can subscribe to feeds from a variety of websites, and then new information from those websites is sent directly to them through an RSS reader. It is similar to receiving e-mail. An RSS reader acts like an “inbox” for RSS feeds. Instead of having to check multiple websites for updates, the new information is located in one convenient place. The use of RSS feeds has increased as blogging has become more popular.

To begin to collect RSS feeds, you’ll need an RSS reader. Most readers are free and easy to use. Two of the most popular are Google Reader (which is web based, meaning you don’t have to download any software) and SharpReader (which requires that you dowload and install a free software program).

The next step to collecting RSS feeds is to subscribe to the feeds from the main website. When you visit your favorite websites, look for these small graphics:

These indicate that the website information is available through the subscription. To subscribe to the feeds, enter the URL of the website into your RSS reader. You can also use your RSS reader to search for subject-related content on the Internet.


Search Engines- A search engine is a website that acts similar to a card catalog for the Internet. Search engines use spider programs to index and locate desired information. The search engine program will find information on the Internet based on the keywords that are entered by the user.

For example, if you type “apple pie recipe” into a search engine it will look to its index of information available on the Internet that most closely relates to “apple pie recipe.” Any site that uses apple pie as one of the keywords will be in the search engine’s index.

Some popular search engines include:,,,, and

SEO- An anagram for Search Engine Optimization. SEO is the process of using targeted keywords in the content, tags and meta-tags of a website in order to gain traffic through search engines. SEO techniques also include testing the search engine results to make sure that the site is well placed in the keyword results.

For example, if you run a website that sells dog bones, you can use SEO to increase your chances of appearing under the keywords “dog bones.” You can add the word dog bones to your website content, and in the tags and meta tags of each page of your website. The better the SEO, the higher your web page will appear in the search engine results for that keyword.

SEO is a constantly evolving portion of the Internet. The process is a combination of art and science, and there are firms that are now dedicated to providing specialized SEO services.

Signature file- Sometimes referred to as a “sig file,” a signature is a short statement at the end of an e-mail message. It can be used to identify the sender and provide additional information. Often times, sig files include a link to a website or lists an address and phone number. Sig files can also be used creatively to display a small picture file or include a personal quote. Signature files are one way of establishing a unique identity on the Internet.

Site/Website- A place on the Internet or the World Wide Web. The term site refers to the body of information as a whole for a domain name. A web site is a collection of Web pages. The pages can contain text, graphics, audio or video content.

Site can also refer to an FTP site or archive site. These types of sites are directories that store files for downloading and uploading.

Spam- E-mail messages that are sent to a number of people without their consent. Spam is also known as “Unsolicited Commercial E-mail” or junk e-mail. It is normally sent to promote a product or service. Spam can also be found in newsgroups and forums when users post information that is not relevant to the pertinent topic.

Spam is characterized by its large volume. Spammers (who are people who spam) follow the direct-marketing technique of saturating the intended audience. They hope for a tiny return from their efforts (normally less that 5 percent).  Spammers don’t really care if they offend large number of people, because there always seems to be those few people that respond to the unsolicited advertisement.

 The most common forms of spam that reach inboxes everyday are:
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    Chain letters
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    Pyramid schemes (fake job opportunities)
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    “Get Rich Quick” and “Make Money Fast” schemes
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    Offers for adult websites and services
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    Offers of software that collect e-mail addresses and send spam
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    Offers for bulk e-mailing services
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    Stock offerings in unknown start-up corporations
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    Fake health products and remedies

Spam is not protected by the national Free Speech laws, which is contrary to popular belief. Therefore, anti-spam techniques are not a form of censorship.

Spam blockers- Also referred to a spam filter. A spam blocker program is used to detect any unsolicited or unwanted e-mail in your mail program’s inbox. This prevents spam messages from getting into your inbox. A spam blocker will filter through messages based on a certain criteria.

Spam blocker programs are normally available through an Internet Service Provider or through a third party program that is downloadable from the Internet. 

Spiders- Another term for Crawler. Spider software is used by search engines to search the Internet for new content to display in the search results.

Spyware-This type of software is similar to viruses, in that it is “contracted” from using the Internet. Spyware, however, gathers information about the web sites that you visit in order to build a “profile” of your preferences for the purpose of marketing. Spyware is often included in free downloads that you get from websites. The license agreement for these free programs may mention the use of spyware, but very few people actually read the details of these agreements. As a result spyware often gets onto a computer without the user’s knowledge.

The result of having spyware on your computer can vary. Sometimes the presence of the programs can result in slower Internet speed and hard drive processing. The more aggressive programs will cause unwanted pop up ads and other marketing devices. More malicious spyware will steal personal information (such as credit cards).

The use of spyware is one of the most important issues today regarding privacy on the Internet. There are many programs available that will find and remove spyware programs from your computer. Some of the more popular are Ad-Aware and Spybot. An Internet search for these terms will lead you to sites where you can download these helpful programs. After doing a spyware search on your computer, you will be surprised by the number of spyware programs that exist on your system. The anti-spyware programs will allow you to delete the spyware from your computer. Generally, this will increase the storage space and speed of your hard drive.

Social networking- The process of meeting and networking with people through the use of specific Internet technology. The largest social networking site on the Internet today is Facebook ( In these communities, initial sets of founders send out messages inviting people in their own personal networks to join the site. The process repeats, and the total number of members grows. The process is also called “viral marketing.”

Social networking sites offer several things to their members, including the opportunity to meet members that share similar interests.

Software-A set of instructions that tell a computer how to execute functions and tasks. Software code is written in a programming language that makes computer systems and hardware work. Some programs contain millions of lines of code.

The two basic software categories are system software (which makes the computer run properly) and application software (which includes programs). Generally, software programs are purchased as CDs that are installed into the computer. However, there is also software that is available for download from the Internet.

Source code – The format in which a computer program or Web site is written. Online, the source code for a web page is normally in HTML, but can also be written in another computer “language.” To find the source code of a web page, select “View” from the top of the Internet Browser. In the “View” menu, there should be an option that says “View Source” or similar language. The source code will appear in a pop-up window.

Sub-domain name- A domain name that is part of a larger domain. If you’ve ever seen a web address that doesn’t start with the letters “www” then you’ve encountered a sub-domain.

Sub-domains are like secondary sites within the larger domain. If you think of the larger domain as a file cabinet, the sub domain would be the folders. Some examples of sub-domains are “” or “”


Tags- A Tag is a keyword or descriptive term that is associated with a piece of information, sound clip or video on the World Wide Web. Tags have become one of the most prevalent forms of classifying information on the Internet. What makes the use of tags interesting is that the tags are selected by the author/creator of the website, blog entry or other form of media.

Tags are used in two specific ways. The first use of tags is hidden to the viewer, but “visible” to Internet search engines. When a web master creates a web page, they add tags to the web page to indicate what type of content is on that page. Once the website and its pages (with tags) is submitted to a search engine for review, the search engine will associate the web page with the tags that have been submitted. This is what allows the search engine to give you results based on keywords that you enter into the search engine. For example, when you type “dog leashes” into a search engine, it will produce all of the web pages that have used “dog leashes” as one of the tags for the page.

Tags also provide users with a quick and easy way to navigate the information on the website. Many websites now have tag lists as part of the navigation of the site. Instead of navigating pages in a top down fashion (Part One, Part Two, Part Three, etc) users can click directly on the tag words that interest them the most. Tags are often used in blogs and wiki sites for organic navigation of the site. Some of the most popular sites that use Tags for navigation are Wetpaint (, (, Flickr ( and Technorati (

When you use tags to navigate a site, you click on the term that is most related to what you are interested in. The website will then show you all of the documents or other media files on the website that relate to that tag.

Although the use of tags is growing in popularity, there are some drawbacks to the method. First of all, since tags are inputting by the author/creator, the use of tags may be misleading. This is especially true in sites that are contributed to by a community of people.

Let’s say that you are selling a specific product (Product A) and want to attract people looking for a competing product (Product B). Even though your website has nothing to do with Product B, you can use Product B’s name in your tags. When anyone searches from Product B, your website will come up in the results.

Also, tags are highly subjective. While one user may label an article with the tags “babies,” “childcare” and “working mom” another may label the same with “nanny” and “children.”

Target Market- This refers to the market segment to which a particular product is marketed. Members of a target market have similar interests that can be based on age, gender, life style or socio-economic grouping. By using target marketing, an Internet marketer can develop a product that speaks to a certain group of people. A key step in developing a product is deciding what the target market is and how to meet the target market’s needs.

Tech support- A service that you call when you have questions regarding your computer hardware or software. The tech support personnel will guide you through fixing your problem over the phone. There are tech support services for your computer model, websites you may be using, your ISP provider and software applications on your computer. Make sure you call the tech support service that most closely deals with the problem you are experiencing.

Telecommute- A work arrangement in which employees have flexibility in working locations and hours. Telecommuters can work from the home, or from another off-site location.

Telecommuting is normally seen in industries that rely heavily on technology or jobs that can be performed over the Internet.

Thread- A topic thread is a string of consecutive message posting to newsgroups, mailing lists or forums. Threads can be organized in ascending or descending order based on the date posted. Open threads are blog posts that allow readers to comment and discuss topics relevant to the blog.

TLD (Top Level Domain)- This is the highest level of the domain name, and appears at the end of the domain name. While “.com” is the most popular TLD, here are a few others:





TLDs are also available in the form of country codes (“.us.”, “.de”, etc).

TOS- An anagram for Terms of Service. They are the rules by which one must agree to abide by in order to use a service. In order to use an online service, you are required to read and agree to the terms of service.

Traffic- Internet traffic is the term used to refer to user activity on a web site. Each time someone visits a web page, an entry is automatically registered on the web page server’s log file. The log file records the number of times that a piece of information has been requested from the server. This request is commonly referred to as a “hit.”

The web hosting service will provide summaries of activities on the site. Keeping track of the traffic that a website receives is an important part of measuring whether the website marketing and content is working.

Tracking- Online businesses use tracking to tell whether or not their advertising, copywriting and web site design are converting to sales. The key to success for any online business is driving targeted traffic to the website through pay per click advertising, exchanging links, exchanging banners and using SEO techniques.

However, these techniques are useless if a business owner does not know if they are working. Tracking is one of the most powerful strategies for increasing sales and opt-in subscriptions. Tracking is measuring the effectiveness of each source of advertising.

Using advertising link tracker software is one of the quickest methods to track where customers are coming from. The software measures the number of clicks that are received on individual advertisements and then the sales or subscriptions garnered from those clicks.

Trojan- A Trojan Horse computer virus gets it name from the infamous legend of the same name. Just like the Trojans were fooled into letting opposing forces in their gates, a Trojan Horse virus is sneaky. This type of virus disguises itself as a helpful program. Normally, a Trojan virus is distributed in this way:

-A user downloads a program from the Internet because they think it may be useful.

-Once the program is opened (run) on the user’s computer, the virus is released. Commonly the virus will erase the hard drive or destroy parts of the computer.

-Sometimes a Trojan will hide on the computer undetected, and slowly start transforming files and documents. This way the user does not know how or where they downloaded the virus.


URL-The term URL refers to “Uniform Resource Locater.” This is the technical term for any web address that you’d type into the address bar of your web browser. Using a URL will take you directly to the website you are looking for. When someone asks for the URL of a website, they want the full address. The basic format of a URL is, although suffixes like “.net,” “.org,” and “.biz” are growing in popularity and use. The term URL is either pronounced with each letter said (Yoo Are Ell) or as an acronym (“Ural”).

Username/ User ID- A synonym for “login name” or “handle.”


Viral- This term was originally coined to describe viral marketing, but the adjective has expanded to refer to any practice that moves a product from person to person. The ease of passing information on to others with e-mail addresses has made it possible for information, videos and graphics to spread like wildfire through the Internet community. There are viral videos, viral jokes, viral hoaxes, etc.

Virus- This is one of the terms that is normally familiar to everyone, but very few understands what exactly it means. Most know that viruses are bad and can be damaging to their computer, but that is the extent of the knowledge.

A computer virus is program that multiplies itself on computer systems and incorporates itself into shared programs. Some viruses are harmless pranks, and others can destroy computer files or disable a computer entirely. A key quality of viruses is that they spread quickly, from user to user.

Viruses are most commonly spread through e-mail. Certain viruses use personal e-mail address books to send the damaging programs from computer to computer. To prevent against receiving an unwelcome virus, do not open any e-mail attachments from people that you do not know.

Most, if not all, Internet Service Providers offer some kind of protection from Viruses within the structure of the Internet connection. If you use the Internet frequently, you might also want to invest in an additional Virus scanning program, such as McAffee VirusScan or Norton Anti-Virus.

Although both Macintosh and Windows run computers are subject to viruses, there are a greater number of Windows viruses.


WAHM- An acronym term for Work at Home Mom. A variation is WAHD (Work at Home Dad). The actual origin of the term is unknown, but it is used on a large scale due to the growing interest of women to stay at home and bring in income at the same time.  Many women wish to have a career and raise their children, instead of working outside the home and placing their children in daycare. WAHMs run their home-based businesses in a variety of fields. Some women focus on telecommuting and freelancing opportunities. Others participate in Multi-Level Marketing programs, e-commerce or auctions.

Web 2.0- This term refers to the “second generation” of services that are available on the World Wide Web. Web 2.0 applications include blogs, podcasts, ppc marketing, wikis, tagging and RSS syndication. Web 2.0 is a rather large category of services that share some basic themes:

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    Web pages are “user friendly” and collaborative – rather than being only accessible by the webmaster
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    Users can own the data on the site and modify it at their convenience
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    The use of “social networking”

Web Designer- The person who is responsible for how the site looks and “feels.” The Web Designer handles the entire aesthetic and navigational creation of a Web site. A web designer is also responsible for ensuring that the graphics are clear, the links are working and the navigation on the site is intuitive. Normally, a web designer is responsible for the creative aspects of a website, rather than the programming, however a knowledge of web programming is necessary.

Web marketer- This is an alternate term for Internet marketer. A web marketer is an individual or company whose primary income comes from marketing products or services on the web. Marketing as business is very possible and popular online. Web marketers can make money by promoting other people’s products or their own.

There are a wide variety of techniques that a Web marketer can use to promote websites and products. Please see the entry for Internet marketing for more details.

Webmaster- This term can be used for a variety of individuals who are involved with creating and/or managing a Web site. A Webmaster is the person who maintains the content and functioning of a website. This can include receiving all of the feedback from Website users, maintaining graphics, supplying content updates and handling all programming matters. A Webmaster may, or may not, have designed the initial layout of the website. Some larger websites have a Webmaster that handles the content of the site, and one that handles the more technical aspects.

WIKI- A type of website that allows users to add, remove or edit most of the content very quickly and easily. The ease of interaction and operation makes wiki a tool for collaborative sites and communities. The term wiki can also refer to the software that enables users to participate in a website. The name comes from the Hawaiian term “wiki-wiki” which means fast.

Essentially, a wiki is an editable website that doesn’t require users to know HTML or any other programming language. Most systems have a record of changes, so that a page can be reverted to any of its previous states. Many wikis allow completely unrestricted access so that people are able to contribute the site without registering. There is no moderation before posting, but the content is often moderated afterward.

www- These three W’s are short for World Wide Web. The World Wide Web is a global information space, and is also called the The Web. Text documents, images, multimedia and other types of resources are identified with URLs so that each can be found in a simple way.

The World Wide Web is actually the system by which information on the Internet is categorized and not the Internet itself. The World Wide Web is like the Dewey Decimal system for the Internet.


XML- A programming language similar to HTML used to develop web pages. The main difference between XML (sometimes called XTML) and other programming languages is the ability to add customized tags to the web page design. XML provides a platform for developing websites that encompass the principles of Web 2.0. It is a lot more abstract and complex than previous programming languages, and its not quite certain whether XML will replace HTML entirely.


Yoyo mode- Occurs when an internet connection rapidly alternates between being “online” and “offline.” In most cases, contacting the ISP technical support will fix the problem.


ZIP file- A compressed file used on Windows. ZIP is the standard technology for data compression. On the Internet, larger graphics and programs are normally compressed as ZIP files before they are made available for download. This allows downloading to go much faster. After downloading a ZIP file, you need to use a decompression software (such as WinZIP, a free program) to “unzip” it and access the data. The technology is very useful when sending photos through e-mail.